The EORI number is a unique number in the European Union, which the customs authorities or other authorities designated by the member states assign to economic operators and other interested persons, in order to use it starting from July 1, 2009 for all customs operations carried out by them throughout the territory European Union.
The legal basis at Union level is Regulation (EU) no. 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 9, 2013 establishing the Customs Code of the Union.
The persons who are obliged to request the assignment of an EORI number are:
• economic operators (persons who, as part of their professional activities, carry out activities regulated by customs legislation, such as import, export, transit, storage, representation operations, as well as operations prior to the arrival/departure of goods that are introduced/removed from the territory of the Community);
• persons, other than economic operators, who import/export goods to/from the European Union.
In Romania, the competent authority for registering and assigning EORI numbers is the General Directorate of Customs. EORI numbers will be requested at the regional customs directorates in whose territorial jurisdiction they are based/are established or, in exceptional cases, at border customs offices.
Depending on the type of person, the EORI number assigned by the Romanian customs authority will have the following form:
• for the legal entity based in Romania: RO + CUI;
• for a legal entity based in a third country: RO + ISO alpha 2 country code of the third country + identification number assigned by the authorized institution of the respective third country;
• for associations of persons based in Romania: RO + CUI;
• for associations of persons based in a third country: RO + ISO alpha 2 country code + identification number assigned by the authorized institution in the respective third country;
• for natural persons established in Romania: RO + personal numerical code;
• for the natural person established in a third country: RO + ISO alpha 2 country code of the third country + identification number assigned by the authorized institution of the respective third country.
The structure of the EORI number established by the European Commission consists of an identifier of the member state that assigns the number (ISO alpha 2 country code, consisting of two alphabetic characters), followed by a unique national identifier of the member state (consisting of a maximum of 15 characters alphanumeric).